LINUX OS (OPERATING SYSTEM) 

 

The Linux is one of popular version of UNIX operating System. It is open source as its source

code is freely available

 It is free to use. Linux was designed considering UNIX

compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of UNIX.

Components of Linux System

 Linux Operating System has primarily three components

namely: 

The Kernel

The System Library 

The System Utility

The Kernel➡ 


The Kernel is the core part of Linux. It is responsible for all major activities of

this operating system. It consists of various modules and it interacts directly with

the underlying hardware. Kernel provides the required abstraction to hide low level

hardware details to system or application programs.

 The System Library ➡ 


The System libraries are special functions or programs using which

application programs or system utilities accesses Kernel’s features. These libraries


implement most of the functionalities of the operating system and do not requires

kernel module’s code access rights.

 The System Utility – The System Utility programs are responsible to do specialized,

individual level tasks.

 Kernel Mode vs. User Mode

 Kernel component code executes in a special privileged mode called kernel mode with


full access to all resources of the computer

 This code represents a single process, executes

in single address space and do not require any context switch and hence is very efficient

and fast.

 Kernel runs each processes and provides system services to processes, provides

protected access to hardware to processes

 Support code which is not required to run in kernel mode is in System Library. User

programs and other system programs works in User Mode which has no access to system

hardware and kernel code. User programs/ utilities use System libraries to access Kernel

functions to get system’s low level tasks.

Okay, so now lets look at the features of the linux operating system

 Linux is Portable

 Portability means software can works on different types of hardware in

same way. Linux kernel and application programs supports their installation on any

kind of hardware platform.

2. linux is an open source project
Meaning, linux source code is freely available and it is community based

development project. Multiple teams work in collaboration to enhance the capability

of Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving.

 3. Has a good Multi-User feature

 means multiple users can access system

resources like memory/ ram/ application programs at same time.

4. Another feature of linux is its Multiprogramming 
meaning multiple applications can run at same time.

 5. A good Hierarchical File System,
Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files/ user files are arranged.

 we would come to understand why the Hierarchial System is very important

 6. The Linux shell
Linux provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs. etc.

7. Finally the linux security System
Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection/ controlled access to specific files/ encryption of data.

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