code is freely available
It is free to use. Linux was designed considering UNIX
compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of UNIX.
Components of Linux System
Linux Operating System has primarily three components
The System Library
The System Utility
this operating system. It consists of various modules and it interacts directly with
the underlying hardware. Kernel provides the required abstraction to hide low level
hardware details to system or application programs.
The System Library ➡
application programs or system utilities accesses Kernel’s features. These libraries
kernel module’s code access rights.
The System Utility – The System Utility programs are responsible to do specialized,
individual level tasks.
Kernel Mode vs. User Mode
Kernel component code executes in a special privileged mode called kernel mode with
This code represents a single process, executes
in single address space and do not require any context switch and hence is very efficient
Kernel runs each processes and provides system services to processes, provides
protected access to hardware to processes
Support code which is not required to run in kernel mode is in System Library. User
programs and other system programs works in User Mode which has no access to system
hardware and kernel code. User programs/ utilities use System libraries to access Kernel
functions to get system’s low level tasks.
Okay, so now lets look at the features of the linux operating system
Linux is Portable
Portability means software can works on different types of hardware in
same way. Linux kernel and application programs supports their installation on any
kind of hardware platform.
2. linux is an open source project
Meaning, linux source code is freely available and it is community based
development project. Multiple teams work in collaboration to enhance the capability
of Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving.
3. Has a good Multi-User feature
means multiple users can access system
resources like memory/ ram/ application programs at same time.
4. Another feature of linux is its Multiprogramming
meaning multiple applications can run at same time.
5. A good Hierarchical File System,
Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files/ user files are arranged.
we would come to understand why the Hierarchial System is very important
6. The Linux shell
Linux provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs. etc.
7. Finally the linux security System
Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection/ controlled access to specific files/ encryption of data.